One of the equipment used in the oil, gas and petrochemical industries is tanks. In general, tanks can be divided into three main categories:
Atmospheric storage tanks
Spherical storage tanks
Pressure vessels are often a process
The following is a brief explanation of each repository.
Welded steel storage tanks:
These containers are used for storing petroleum or chemicals that are liquid at ambient temperature. Raw materials such as crude oil, gasoline, diesel and heavy crude oil are stored in these tanks. These containers have different ceilings in different sizes and sizes depending on the type of storage material.
Spherical pressure vessels:
These tanks are used to store LPG. Since propane and butane are gases at ambient temperature and become liquid at -5 and -5 ° C, they are not capable of being stored in atmospheric storage tanks and must therefore be pressurized to store them. Converted to liquid and stored. Since atmospheric storage tanks are not capable of withstanding high pressures, they should be stored in spherical storage tanks that can withstand up to 2 times the pressure.
These tanks are often used in process units of refineries and petrochemicals. The IsoMax tower in oil refineries, the deminizer tower and the diatanizer tower in the gas refineries are examples of pressure vessels. The minimum pressure in these tanks is 2 times and maximum 2 times.
The above classification is exactly as per API and ASME standards.
API: American Petroleum Institute
ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Metal storage tanks are designed according to API 650, spherical storage tanks according to API 620 and pressure vessels according to ASME Sec VIII standard.
There are other standards for the design and construction of these tanks. Standards from countries such as Britain (BS), Germany (DIN), Japan (JIS) and currently the European Union have also launched a series of standards in the oil, gas and petrochemical industries. In the following discussion, a brief explanation of each standard will be discussed.
Currently, the oil, gas and petrochemical industry is more in line with US standards, the most important of which is described in the preceding paragraph.
The major parts of each standard include the following:
How to build
Inspection and testing